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Learning Serbian with exercises, video lessons and online courses

Showing posts with label serbian cases. Show all posts
Showing posts with label serbian cases. Show all posts

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Serbian 102 - Nominative, Accusative and Locative


Let me tell you that the fifth book for learning Serbian is ready to be published. Here comes one exercise based from it. Let me know if it is useful and if you need more of these?



Saturday, August 04, 2018

Let's practice Locative, Accusative and Genitive with Vicevi

Monday, June 19, 2017

Verb Conjugations in Serbian - Present Tense of Go

Present Tense of to Go



Here comes a short lesson with the verb IĆI = TO GO to in the Simple Present tense. The conjugations are as follows:

  1. Ja idem - ti ideš - on/ona/ono ide ///// mi idemo - vi idete - oni / one  / ona idu

Common Serbian Phrases with this Verb


How can you use the verb IĆI to create the most common phrases:

  1. Gde ideš? = Where are you going?
  2. Kada ideš u školu? = When are you going to school?
  3. Gde ideš u kupovinu/prodavnicu? = Where are you going shopping?
  4. Zašto ideš na posao tako kasno? = Why are you going to work so late?
  5. Gde ideš na odmor svake godine? = Where do you go on holiday every year?
  6. Kad idete na odmor? = When are you going on holiday?
  7. Ko ide u školu? = Who is going to school?
  8. Ko ide sa mnom? = Who is going with me?
  9. Ko ide ka Beogradu? = Who is going to (towards) Belgrade?
  10. Kada ideš u Beograd sa mamom? = When are you going to Belgrade with me?
As you can see, this is a tricky verb, because it can be followed by nouns in different cases. The most common are:

1. Accusative with the preposition "u / na" = in or to, as in GO TO

examples:
a. Idem na posao.
b. Idemo u školu u 8 ujutro.
c. Idemo na odmor  u avgustu.
d. Svake godine idem na odmor u Grčku.
e. Sutra idem u Beograd sa tobom.
f. Idem ( u Beograd) sa mamom u petak. 
g. Deca idu u školu.

2. Instrumental with the preposition "sa" =with, as in GO with a friend

examples:
h. Baka ide sa mnom.
i. Idem ( u Beograd) sa mamom u petak. 
j. Zato što idem biciklom.

3. Less frequently it will be followed by the Dative, with the preposition "ka / prema" = towards, as in GO TOWARDS.

examples:
k. Mi idemo ka Beogradu. Možete li da nas povedete?


Your task

Try to match the questions 1 to 10 with the answers a to k. and record them with www.Vocaroo.com. You can send them to me and get your replies via Patreon.

Wednesday, January 25, 2017

Serbian Phrases: Don't Argue with Me

Would it be funny for you to hear a phrase "Don't argue with mine!", whatever that might mean?

Here comes a short clip with a similar phrase, which is obviously wrong and make people laugh (together with a specific pronunciation of  Mr. Šojić's "ć" in "ćao" :)



- Nemaš! Šta moliš? Imaš (li) kod sebe 350 Evra?
- Ma gospodine Šojiću...
- Ma, ćao! Nemaš! Ćao! Ne raspravljaj se sa mene! Ne raspravljaj se!

Don't argue with me!

The correct Serbian phrase: "Don't argue with me" would be as follows:

- Ne raspravljaj se sa mnom! (not "sa mene"=)

The verb "to argue" is always used with "se" form: raspravljati se. A few synonyms would be:
svađati se and prepirati se. (Ne svađaj se sa mnom / Ne prepiri se sa mnom). 

 Instrumental of Serbian Pronouns

The preposition "with" requires the Instrumental  form of the pronoun so you can use the mentioned verbs with the following pronouns as well:
  • with me = sa mnom
  • with you = sa tobom
  • with him/it = sa njim
  • with her = sa njom
  • with us = sa nama
  • with you = sa vama / Vama
  • with them = sa njima
If you would like to get all my video lessons with explanations in English, translations and additional exercises like the ones above, in the meaningful order, consider joining me on Patreon. HVALA!

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

How to Practice Personal Pronouns through Cases

If you are familiar with the personal pronouns in Serbian in the Nominative case, it's time for you to their different forms through various cases.

The clever way is to approach these more complicated forms through the texts you've done before, using the pronouns instead of nouns. For example:



If we turn all the nouns into the corresponding pronouns, we would get a fun story:

  • Želim da kupim njih. = Želim da ih kupim.
  • Da li  imate njih, ali u plavoj boji? = Da li ih imate, ali plave?
  • Da li možete da mi pokažete nju i njih = Da li možete da mi je pokažete i da mi ih pokažete?
  • Želim da kupim nju, nju i nju i njih. = Želim da je kupim i želim da ih kupim.
Now I have two questions:
  1. What does each pronoun in bold refer to?
  2. What changes does the word order cause?


However, the easiest way is to learn pronouns is through songs and exercises:

Since the courses Serbian 101 and Serbian 102 deal with the following cases:
  • Nominative (JA - TI/VI - ON - ONA - ON // MI - VI - ONI)
  • Accusative 
in Serbian 102 I introduced the pronouns in the Accusative

  • Accusative (MENE / SEBE - TEBE/ VAS - NJEGA - NJU(JE) - NJEGA // NAS - VAS - NJIH)

In Serbian 201 I introduce the pronouns in the Locative and Instrumental case:



  • Locative ( o MENI/ SEBI - TEBI - VAMA - NJEMU - NJOJ - NJEMU // NAMA - VAMA - NJIMA)
  • Instrumental (SA MNOM/SOBOM - TOBOM - VAMA - NJIM - NJOM - NJIM // NAMA - VAMA - NJIMA)
and we will practice them together in the next post!


Monday, March 03, 2014

Exercise with Instrumental Case in Serbian

If you enjoy learning Serbian with easy texts, here comes a very simple one, which is actually a part of Serbian 102 course:



Vocabulary you might need:

PUTOVATI - to travel
NA MORE - to the seaside
U ZAVISNOSTI OD - depending on
ODREDIŠTE - destination
IĆI - to go
A - and/but
NAJVIŠE VOLETI - to love most of all
ZATO ŠTO - because
ZAUSTAVITI SE - to stop
ZAŽELETI - to wish
SVE VREME - all the time
SVAĐATI SE - to argue
MENI - to me
MOM SUPRUGU - to my husband
POŠTO - because
MIRAN - peaceful
TRAJATI - to last
DUGO - long
Here comes the same text, but in the Cyrillic script:

Saturday, August 10, 2013

Case Practice - the Dative with Adjectives

In order to the following exercise easily, I'd suggest you flick through the previous posts on the topic of the Dative case in Serbian:

Now that you feel more confident about the form and usage, let's try to do two exercises:
  1. try to figure out how adjectives agree with a noun in Dative (what are the endings)
  2. you can listen to the instructions and repeat the same  phrases only with the pronouns in this case (Sg. njemu -mu (masc), njoj-joj (fem.) or Pl. njima-im)

Thursday, June 09, 2011

Genetive in Serbian Language - Lesson 1

Saturday, December 19, 2009

Body parts in Serbian


A few days ago Nat, AhoyEnglish sent me this lovely pic with body parts in four languages. Let's listen to Ivan's pronunciation of the words and how they can be used in the context.

Let's start with Fem. Sg. nouns:

Ruka
Noga
Šaka
Glava

*Šta se desilo ? (What's happened?)
**Boli me ruka. (My hand hurts)
*Ruka? Kako si povredio rukU? (Hand? How did you hurt your hand?)
**Sankao sam se i onda sam pao i povredio je.(I was sledding and then I fell over and hurt it: 'her' nju = je = it for Feminine Sg. nouns in accusative)
Now you do the same for noga, šaka, glava: (the answer key is in the comment)

Neuter Sg. nouns:


Rame
Koleno
Stopalo
Uvo (ear)

*Šta se desilo ? (What's happened?)
**Boli me rame. (My shoulder hurts)
*Rame? Kako si povredio rame? (Shoulder? How did you hurt your rame?)
**Sankao sam se i onda sam pao i povredio ga.(I was sledding and then I fell over and hurt it : njega = ga = it for Neuter and Masculine Sg. nouns in accusative)

Masculine Sg. nouns:

Lakat
Nokat
Prst
Zub

*Šta se desilo ? (What's happened?)
**Boli me lakat. (My elbow hurts)
*Lakat? Kako si povredio lakat? (Elbow? How did you hurt your elbow?)
**Sankao sam se i onda sam pao i povredio ga.(I was sledding and then I fell over and hurt it : 'him' njega = ga = it for Neuter and Masculine Sg. nouns in accusative).

Sooooo, what are the sufixes for Accusative case in Singular, for the following genders
(1) Fem.?
(2) Neu.?
(3) Masc.?
For more information about Accusative you can check this document published by Larisa Zlatić

Friday, June 19, 2009

Clothes in Serbian 2



Part two combines asking questions from part no. 1 (gde je / gde su) with answers (ona je u + ormanU (suffix '-u' for masc. nouns denotes the locative case). Take a look at the example examples:

1. CIPELE (Fem - Pl)
a. Gde su cipele? (Where are the shoes)
b. One su u ormanu. (They are in the cupboard)

2. KUPAĆI KOSTIM (Masc. - Sg)
a. Gde je kupaći kostim?
b. On je u ormanu.

5. ODELO (Neuter - Sg)
a. Gde je odelo?
b. Ono je u ormanu.

Now you can continue:

3. JAKNA (Fem - Sg)
4. CIPELE (Fem - Pl)
5. ODELO (Neut - Sg)
6. ŠAL (Masc - Sg)
7. HALJINA (Fem - Sg)
8 / 10. GAĆE (Fem - Pl)
9. POTKOŠULJA (Fem - Sg)
11. RUKAVICE (Fem - Pl)
12. ŠORC (Masc - Sg)
13. ČARAPE (Fem - Pl)
14. ČIZME (Fem - Pl)
15. PRSLUK (Masc - Sg)
**************************

Sg Masculine (he) ON
Sg Feminine (she) ONA
Sg Neuter (it) ONO
Pl Masculine (they) ONI
Pl Feminine (they) ONE
Pl Neuter (they) ONA

Wednesday, December 31, 2008

Children's songs in Serbian


Listen to the song and write the appropriate form of the word in brackets. Good luck = Srećno!

Vuče, vuče, bubo lenja



Neko pliva u ____________
(Sava - one of the longest rivers in Serbia)
Neko živi u ____________
(Ruma - name of a city in Vojvodina)
Neko raste u ____________
(trava - grass)
A vuk živi u ____________
(šuma - forest)


U __________ (škola - school) ga ne vide
__________ (nemati - doesn't have) ni maturu
U muzeje ne _________ (ići - go)
Prezire kulturu


Vuuuče vuučue bubo leenjaa
Štaa će reeći pokoleenjaa
Vodio si život buuuraan
Pa ostao nekultuuuuraaaan


Usta su _________
(his) snažna
Duša _________
(his) je drumska
Obećanja lažna
A ćud ________
(his) je šumska


Kad _________
(is) srećan leži
Kad _________
(is) ljut on reži
Ka zverstvima teži
_______
(when) ga vidiš beži

Vuuuče vuučue bubo leenjaa
Štaa će reeći pokoleenjaa
Vodio si život buuuraan
Pa ostao nekultuuuuraaaan!

Sunday, December 14, 2008

Dative Case in Serbian

Dative in Serbian

Form:

Masculine Sg. grad+u
Masculine Pl. grad+ov+ima
Neuter Sg. sel+u
Neuter Pl. sel+i+ma
Feminine Sg. stvar+i / zemlj+i
Feminine Pl. stvar+ima / zemlj+ama

Usage:

Dative is a case which denotes a thing or a being to whom something is sent, directed or given. It is used both with and without prepositions.

Dative without prepositions:

1. Dative of purpose - Dedi i baki unuka poklanja osmeh.
2. Dative of benefit - Tesla je ucinio dobro ljudima.
3. Subject dative - Starcu se dremalo.
4. Possessive dative - Ja sam Petru brat.
5. Dative of affection - Kako si mi?
6. Dative in oaths - Tako mi postenja!
7. Dative with phrases evo, eno, eto - Evo ti jabuka!
8. Dative with verbs of movement - Petar pridje svom drugu.

Dative with prepositions:

  1. k, ka = to (dative only) - Krenuo je ka Parizu.
  2. prema = towards (both dative and genetive) -Idemo prema Srbiji.
  3. protiv, suprot, nasuprot, uprkos = against (dative only) - Pobedili smo uprkos vremenu.
( Dative with 'ka' and 'prema' are the ones most frequently used)

Sunday, November 09, 2008

Locative in Serbian

Lokativ

Lokativ ____ (is) padež koji ide uz predloge 'na', 'u', 'o', 'po', 'pri'. On označava mesto ____ ( where) se vrši radnja ili gde se nešto nalazi. Zato se i ______ (named) padežom mesta. Latinski 'locus' ______ (means) mesto. Evo nekoliko primera ______ (with) predlogom 'U':

Ljudi žive u Beograd__ , u Kruševc__, u Brisel__ ili na sel_. Kada ____ (are) imenice muškog i srednjeg roda u jednini, onda se doda nastavak 'U'. Ljudi žive i u Srbij___, Belgij__, Italij__ - ali pošto su ovo imenice ženskog roda u jednini, one gube poslednje 'a', i dodaje im se nastavak 'I'.

Lokativ se _________ (also) koristi i da iskažemo o kome pričamo, i tada se koristi _______ (with) predlog "o". Juče sam pričala o prijatelj___, muškarcim_, drugaric__ i odel___- u množini lokativ zahteva sledeće nastavke -ima, za muški rod, -ama i srednji -ima!

*********** Translation & Answers*******************

Sunday, November 02, 2008

Case suffixes in Serbian

One of the most difficult features of the Serbian language are declensions, i.e. different suffixes which words such as nouns, pronouns, adjectives take in different cases. Let me add all of them in one place, while in the following posts you will be able to focus on practicing these cases, one by one and in a more fun way!

Singular Cases Suffixes in Serbian 

Case name:Answers question:Used to describe:Suffixes (I tried describing just the majority of case endings, general rule, not the exceptions and specific ones)
NominativeKO?
ŠTA?

Who? What?
Usually the subject of a sentence and predicative- Masc. most often ends in a consonant
- Fem. most often ends in A
- Neut. most often ends in -E or -O
Genitive KOGA?ČEGA?

Of who? Of what?
Possession, belonging, a part of something- Masc. nouns take an - A ending
- Fem. nouns drop the final -a and take an -E ending
- Neut. nouns drop the final -e or -o and take an - A ending (while some nouns in animate category add an infix T, so you get deteTA, pileTA)
DativeKOME?ČEMU?

To whom? To what?
The noun to which/ whom something is given, shown, etc.- Masc. nouns take an - U ending
- Fem. nouns drop the final -a and take an -i ending
- Neut. nouns drop the final -e or -o and take an - U ending
AccusativeKOGA? ŠTA?

Whom? What?
Usually the object of a sentence- Masc. nouns describing inanimate concepts don't change while nouns in animate category (person / animal / plant) take an - A ending, the same as the genitive case
- Fem. nouns drop the final -a and take an -U ending
- Neut.  nouns describing inanimate concepts don't change, regardless of the category (animate/inanimate) 
VocativeHEJ! Calling someone or in poems referring to something or some placeUsed to address somebody or something- Masc. nouns ending in a consonant take an - E ending, the ones ending in an -a drop the final -a and take an -O suffix, otherwise they don't change (examples: Dejvid - Dejvide! Pera - Pero! Mirko - Mirko! )
- Fem. nouns  of the foreign origin don't change in the locative, while the two and more syllable ones drop the final -a and take an -O ending, while names ending in -CA drop the final A and take an -E  (Marina! Kim! Nada - Nado! Ljubica - Ljubice!)
- Neut. nouns don't change 
InstrumentalS KIM?
ČIM?

Using, with, whom? Using, with, what?
Company (with preposition s) or utilization of something or someone to accomplish an action- Masc. nouns take an - OM ending
- Fem. nouns drop the final -a and take an -OM ending
- Neut. nouns drop the final -e or -o and take an - OM ending
>>> for all genders, after some "soft" sounds you will have an ending -EM (mužEM, tušEM...)
LocativeGDE?
O KOME? O ČEMU?

Where? About whom?
Location, Relation(It's good to know that the locative = dative in form)
- Masc. nouns take an - U ending
- Fem. nouns drop the final -a and take an -i ending
- Neut. nouns drop the final -e or -o and take an - U ending

Plural Cases Suffixes in Serbian ... coming soon

Exercise with Case Suffixes in Serbian


Draga Anna,

Hvala ti za predivnu idej__ kako da vodim ovaj blog. Trudiću se da redovno objavljujem kratke prič__ ili postov__ , bez nastavak__ za padež___, a rešenj___ ćeš moći da pročitaš u audio fajl__ na vrhu___ svak___ post___. U početk___ ću pisati lakše tekst___ , pa sve teže i teže. Možeš mi i dojaviti šta ti se sviđa, a šta ne u komentar___.
Pošto svakodnevno izmišljam test____ za učenik___ englesk___, neće mi biti teško da to radim i za srpsk___ . Nadam se da ćeš uživati, kao i ostali vredni učenic__ koji nalete na ovaj blog.
Do sledećeg javljanj___ sve najbolje i puno pozdrav___
od Marin___

 ps. the answer key is in comments

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