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Showing posts sorted by relevance for query aspect. Sort by date Show all posts
Showing posts sorted by relevance for query aspect. Sort by date Show all posts

Monday, November 08, 2021

Serbian 401 - Aspect in Serbian

Since there aren't many exercises on perfective and imperfective aspect in Serbian, I'll share all my video lessons and exercises for you to practice. 

Aspect in Serbian - Short Explanation

The easiest way to see the difference and the most frequent forms are to contrast present and past tense in Serbian. 

Aspect in Serbian - Trošiti vs Potrošiti  

  1. The Perfective Aspect of the verbs in Serbian shows most naturally in the past tense, denoting the finished action: Potrošila sam puno novca na kompjuter (I have spent /I spent a lot of money on the computer)
  2. The Imperfective Aspect shows clearly in the present tense, showing duration: Dok ti štediš novac, ja ga trošim (While you are saving money, I am spending it) - HOWEVER, it can be used for regular actions and habits as well: koliko novca trošiš svakog mesec? (how much money do you spend each month) 

Aspect in Serbian - Video Exercise

Therefore, this word order exercise is dedicated only to this clear PRESENT/PAST distinction 

For more, make sure you follow Serbian 301 and 401 posts!

Aspect in Serbian - Word order Exercise

Thursday, February 28, 2013

Intermediate Serbian - Verb Aspect, lesson 3

Before we continue with the video lessons focusing on aspect differences, let's be impratctical and  talk only about the grammar today:

As you probably noticed in the previous post for the intermediate level, one can turn an imperfective verb into a perfective one by adding a prefix (buditi - probuditi ,  razbuditi ). But this is not the only way to change an aspect of a verb. You can also:

  • add a prefix to the verb and it becomes perfective 
  • add a suffix to the verb and it becomes perfective (dremati - dremNUti)
  • alter the stem (odmoriti - odmarati, which I explained in the previous post)
But, we have to be cautious with the process of prefixation ! Quite often the meaning of the verb does not bear only the difference in aspect ( whether the action is complete or incomplete: "I wrote" - "I was writing" : Napisao sam = Pisao sam). It more frequently bears a new layer of meaning,  like the ones mentioned in "buditi" becoming perfective in "probuditi" or "razbuditi", so we need to  use phrasal verbs in English to accurately convey the additional meaning.

Let me give you a few examples of:
  • clear-cut distinction pefective-imperfective (without any additonal meanings):
  1. pisati - napisati (to be writing - to have written/wrote)
  2. čitati - pročitati (to be reading - to have read/ read )
  • the prefix adding new meanings :
  1. igrati - odigrati / izigrati / zaigrati  (to be playing - to have played / to play up / to play upon* these translations are incomplete and need to be read in  the sentences, which will be the aim of our future lessons at this level )
  2. pisati -  prepisati (to copy) / zapisati (to jot down) / upisati (to enroll)
Until the next lesson, do practise the aspect in Serbian by doing some fun exercises published in the previous posts:

Saturday, May 07, 2016

Aspect in Serbian with Verbs Describing House Chores

How to Practice Aspect in Serbian?

When talking about aspect in Serbian, I must admit it is best learnt by using the phrases in everyday situations. A good example is a set of the most frequently used verbs when talking about house chores:

Imperfective vs. Perfective Aspect in Serbian  

  • Prati / oprati sudove = to be washing / to wash the dishes
  • Raspremati / raspremiti = to be tidying up / to tidy up
  • Usisati / usisavati = to be hoovering / to hoover
  • Čistiti / (p)očistiti = to be cleaning / to clean
  • Brisati / obrisati = to be wiping / to wipe
  • Kuvati / skuvati = to be cooking / to cook
  • Pržiti / ispržiti = to be frying / to fry
  • Peći / ispeći = to be baking / to bake
  • Peglati / opeglati = to be ironing / to iron

Tuesday, January 02, 2018

Aspect in Serbian - Odmoriti or Odmarati?

Do you know the difference between odmoriti and odmArAti (to have a rest)? Which one shows a finished action (perfective aspect), which one shows an action in progress (imperfective aspect)?

If you know the word trAjAti, which means to lAst, it will help you connect the form with double A with the action in progress, which shows that odmArAti is obviously used to show that you are or were "having a  rest / resting".

On the other hand, the form with odmORIti, shows that you have had a rest and that's it, the result is more important than duration, so this form shows the perfective aspect.

Their various forms and differences in present and past tenses are so subtle, so I created a set of exercises for you to learn more about this weird odmoriti-odmarati duo by actually using them:) Before you see all the forms below, try to do this Micromatch exercise:

How much time did you need? Guess it wasn't that hard, once you were able to see the possible answers. For some more difficult tests, you might need all the verb forms in one place! Now, let me reveal them to you:

Present tense

- odmoriti se: odmorim - odmoriš - odmori // odmorimo - odmorite - odmore
- odmArAti se : odmaram - odmaraš - odmara // odmaramo - odmarate -odmaraju

Past tense

- odmorio - odmorila - odmorilo // odmorili - odmorile - odmorila
- odmarao - odmarala - odmaralo // odmarali - odmarale - odmarala

Have fun!

Saturday, April 22, 2017

Perfective and Imperfective Aspect in Serbian

In today's lesson we will learn the following verbs

Perfective Aspect = Svršeni glagolski vid 

1. šutnuti = to kick
2. skočiti = to jump
3. potrčati / trčati = to run
4. povući = to pull
5. otvoriti = to open
6. gurnuti = to push
7. zatvoriti = to close
8. uhvatiti = to catch

Imperfective Aspect = Nesvršeni glagolski vid 

1. šutirati = to be kicking
2. skakati = to be jumping
3. trčati = to be running
4. povlačiti / vući = to be pulling
5. otvArati= to be opening
6. zatvAriti = to be closing
7. zatvArati= to be closing
8. hvatA = to be catching

We'll use them in the past tense.

Prošlo vreme, perfektni oblik = Past Simple Tense 

He kickED the ball - on je šutnuo loptu
he jumpED - on je skočio
he ran - on je potrčao
he pullED the box - on je povukao kutiju
he openED the door - on je otvorio vrata
he pushED the box - on je gurnuo kutiju
he closeD the door - on je zatvorio vrata
he caught the ball - on je uhvatio loptu

Click here for the full version.

As you can see each aspect has a different or slightly different form. That's why I am making the short videos with conjugations so you can hear and see the conjugations clearly. Let's focus on the fun task in front of us today, and in the following days you can expect me to focus more on the conjugations of the each verbs with fun exercises. Looking forward to getting your vocaroo.com stories in both aspects :)

Thursday, September 19, 2013

The Meaning of the Verb "slagati se " in Serbian

Slažu se kao pas i mačka :)
The verb "slagati se" imperf.(with first "a" being long) /"složiti se" perf.  = to agree * can have a range of different meanings in Serbian and we're going to discuss them today, because I'll need it for my next lesson about Serbian history.

  • If two colours match, we say "slažu se". For example: Plava se slaže sa žutom, ali se ne slaže sa crvenom (slagati se = to match)
  • If a brother and sister get on/along with each other, we say "oni se slažu". For example: Baš imaš sreće, tvoj  brat i ti se dobro slažete. (You are rally lucky, your brother and you get along very well)
  • If you agree to go out with your friend, you will say: "slažem se". For example: Hoćeš li da idemo u restoran večeras ? Važi, slažem se! (Would you like to go to a restaurant tonight ? OK, I agree!)
  • If two people are at each other's throats, i.e." fight like cat(s) and dog(s)" you can similarly describe it in Serbian as "slažu se kao pas i mačka"!
The simple present tense conjugations of the verb SLAGATI:
(Sg) Slažem se - slažeš se - slaže se  (Pl) Slažemo se - slažete se - slažu se 

The past tense verb forms 
- Imperfective aspect
( _ denotes the auxiliary "to be" which shows which person is the sentence referring to)
(Sg) M slagao _ se, F slagala _ se, N slagalo _  se
(Pl) M slagali _ se , F slagale _ se, N slagala _ se
- Perfective aspect:

( _ denotes the auxiliary "to be" which shows which person is the sentence referring to)
(Sg) M složio _ se, F složila _ se, N složilo _  se
(Pl) M složili _ se , F složile _ se, N složila _ se

The simple future forms:
- Imperfective aspect
(Sg) Slagaću se - slagaćeš se - slagaće se
(Pl) Slagaćemo se - slagaćete se - slagaće se
Perfective aspect:
(Sg) Složiću se - složićeš se - složiće se
(Pl) Složićemo se - složićeš se - složiće se

* You might also find the word "slagati" which means "to lie", but the stress pattern is different (with the first  "a" being short) and there is no reflexive " se".
** You might also find the word "slagati" with the same  stress pattern as "slagati se" (to agree), but without the reflexive "se". In that case, the verb "slagati" means "to stack things" or " to put things in order" 

Friday, January 13, 2023

Practicing Serbian Aspect

Perfective and Imperfective Aspect in Serbian through Tenses

I guess you will like the following exercises focusing only on the verbs TO BUY and TO VISIT, both in the perfective and imperfective aspect & through different tenses. Let me know in the comment if you would like more exercises like these two?




Zadatak: uzdahnula OR uzdisala?


Njuz: šala na temu crnog pantera

Thursday, February 21, 2013

Serbian Language Day 10 - Aspect in Serbian

I hope you enjoyed revising the Simple Past in Serbian and wondering why the last lesson was so easy for someone at an intermediate level. The obvious reason is the introduction into this tense, because it'll lead us to the trickiest aspect of the Serbian language:

While in the English language there's an elaborate system of tenses (level of syntax) in order to express whether an action took place, was talking place or has been talking place, in the Serbian language, these distinctions are inferred mainly from the verb, at the lexical level. For example:
  • odmorio (had a rest) or odmarao (was having a rest)
That's why I prepared quite a lot video lessons about Jeremija and Spomenka, and the follow-up exercises, hoping that it'll help you clarify the aspect in Serbian. Let me start with this  difficult one, but if it's too easy, check this one out :)

  • PROBUDITI = to wake up (perfective)
  • BUDITI = to wake up (imperfective)
  • RAZBUDITI = to wake up (perfective)
Kada se obično budiš ? = When do you usually wake up ?
Koliko ti treba vremena da se probudiš ? = How much time does it take for you to wake up ?
Kada si se jutros probudio ? When did you wake up yesterday ?
Jutros sam se probudio u pola šest (5.30) = This morning I woke up at 5.30

In the "she-version", Jeremija made a few mistakes. Here're the correct text:

Friday, September 21, 2018

Serbian Aspect Easy Way - Nisam te se nagledao

While I was searching for some songs for learning Serbian, I came across this aspect-friendly one called Nisam te se nagledao,  which inspired me to create two sets of quizzes for you to practice Serbian aspect while listening to it :) I bet you'd be delighted to find out that there's an easy and more efficient way to learn verbal aspects :)

Let's match the verses:

Verbs only:

Saturday, December 01, 2018

Serbian Aspect with Games - What were you doing?

In this video lessons you can simply practice translating sample sentences with the verbs in the imperfective aspect from English into Serbian.

Once you feel more confident, you can do the tasks yourself!

Imperfective - Perfective pairs of Verbs mentioned in this video

  • ČITATI - proČITATI >>> to be reading - to read
  • SLUŠATI - odSLUŠATI / poSLUŠATI >>> to be listening - to listen to
  • SPAVATI - odSPAVATI >>> to be sleeping - to sleep
  • PLESATI - odPLESATI / zaPLESATI >>> to be dancing - to dance
  • RADITI - uRADITI >>> to be working - to work
  • GLEDATI - odGLEDATI >>> to be watching - to watch

For more similar videos with explanations and exercises, check out my Patreon page!

Monday, February 17, 2020

Serbian 501 - Money Collocations

Common Money Collocations in Serbian

In this lesson we are expanding our vocabulary by learning the collocations about money. Let me list the verbs in both imperfective and perfective aspect, which commonly collocate with the word money (novac or pare)

  • Trošiti - potrošiti novac: to spend money
  • Pozajmljivati - pozajmiti  novac: to borrow/lend money
  • Davati - dati  novac: to give money
  • Štedeti - uštedeti  novac: to save money
  • Bacati - baciti  novac: to throw money away
  • Zarađivati - zaraditi  novac: to earn money
  • Dobijati - dobiti  novac: to get money
  • Skupljati - skupiti  novac: to raise money 

Practicing Money Collocations in Serbian

The common examples are in the following exercise: 

For more video lessons and exercises, check out my Patreon page. Thanks for supporting me!

Saturday, September 17, 2011

Serbian Online Course

If you've been following SerbianLessons pages on this blog, you've probably noticed that there is a growing number of Serbian online courses which I am adding there.

Why do you need a course ?

  • Because you need a clear step-by-step guidance, and that is exactly what you get when you enroll one of the courses.
  • Because you need an easily accessible site where you can easily refer back to the videos from the previous lessons, as well as to the videos of upcoming sessions in order to prepare for the online sessions in advance. By joining one of my courses, you are granted unlimited access and downloading option to all the MP4s, MP3s and PDFs.
What do you learn ?

  • All my courses are goal oriented - each lesson is organized in such a way that you learn to understand/say something useful, inspired by everyday situations. 

Friday, October 25, 2019

Serbian 401 - Mala istorija Srbije, drugi deo

Serbian 401 - Mala istorija Srbije, drugi deo

Sigurna sam da ste uživali vežbajući srpski uz Malu istoriju Srbije, prvi deo. Danas stiže drugi deo da vidim koliko se sećate i šta ste naučili do sada ;)

Mala istorija Srbije - vežba, Serbian 401

Perfective and imperfective "se" verbs in  Serbian 401 - Mala istorija Srbije, drugi deo

  1. SMEJATI SE = to laugh (nasmejem se/nasmejao sam se - smejem se/smejao sam se)
  2. UDARATI SE = to hit oneself (udarim se/udario sam se - udaram se/udarao sam se)
  3. ZAGRCNUTI SE /zadaviti se = to choke oneself with food (zagrcnem se/zagrncuo sam se - zadavim se/zadavio sam se)
  4. DEŠAVATI SE = to happen (desi se/ desilo se - dešava se / dešavalo se)
  5. ZVATI SE = to be called (this is used both as a perf. and imperf. verb, but I can add a similar perf. form with a slight change in meaning (give oneself a name): prozovem se/prozvao sam se - zovem se / zvao sam se)... this reminded me of two-aspect verbs, which we could cover in the future!
Nadam se da ste uživali gledajući seriju Mala istorija Srbije i radeći vežbe!

Thursday, September 08, 2011

Verbal Aspect in Serbian

Listen to the song and decide which phrases you hear.

Finished/Completed (Perfective) - In progress or repetitive (Imperfective)
Sunce me probudi - Sunce me budi
Žurno se obučem - Žurno se oblačim
Popijem kafu = Pijem kafu
Oči protrljam = Oči trljam
Zaspao sam = Spavam
Gurnem vrata = Guram vrata
Pogledam ptice = Gledam ptice
Odem brzo = Odlazim brzo
Osvrnem se = Osvrćem se
Otplovim = Plovim

Monday, December 13, 2010

Verb Prefixes in Serbian

I'm sure that many eager learners of Serbian are often puzzled by the meaning of prefixes and suffixes which are added to verbs in our language. While English uses different tense aspects (progressive, perfective) and phrasal verbs to express the same meaning, we tend to express aspect at the lexical level - that's why numerous prefixes and suffixes!

I think it's useless to puzzle students by bombarding them with numerous prefixes with one verb stem e.g. izaći, ući, otići, prići, doći etc. especially in one lesson. I think it's more effective to introduce one prefix, with common meaning, applied to the verbs with which students are already familiar with.

That's why I'll introduce the prefix "do-" = similar to English 'to'

1. meaning towards someone or something, or some finishing phase

trčati (run) - dotrčati (run to)
Sima trči (Sima is running)
Sima je trčao (Sima was running)
Sima je dotrčao (Sima has run (to me or some place))

šetati (walk) - došetati (walk to)
Ja šetam (I am walking/I walk)
Ja sam šetala (I was walking)
Došetala sam se do parka (I've walked to the park)
Došetaću se do tebe. (I'll walk to your place)

2. meaning 'additional'

pisati (write) - dopisati (add to what you've written)
Pišem knjigu (I'm writing a book)
Pisao sam pismo. (I was writing a letter)
Dopisao sam komentar (I added a comment)
Dopisao sam još jednu rečenicu (I've written one more sentence)

zidati (build) - dozidati (build some more/build up)
Zidali smo kuću pet godina (we were/have been building the house for five years)
Dozidali smo jednu sobu (we built up one more room)

dati (give) - dodati (add)
Dali su nam tortu (they gave us a cake)
Dodali smo malo šećera(we added a little sugar)

Thursday, March 07, 2013

Intermediate Serbian Lessons - 365 Days of Serbian

Thursday, October 03, 2013

What does Verb "Nositi" Mean in Serbian ?

The verb "nositi" in Serbian has many different translations into English :
  • nositi odeću = to wear clothes
  • nositi  torbu   = to carry a bag
  • nositi dete   = to bear a child
  • nositi se sa problemima = to cope with problems
So, while in English there's a multitude of different words representing only one word in Serbian, there's this very productive prefixation system in our language which will make things complicated. But don't worry ! If you start learning the approximate meanings of Serbian suffixes and prefixes, you'll pretty soon be able to infer the meaning from the context, if you know what the basic stem word means. Let me give you an example with the stem " nositi ", as explained above :
  • pre- = over/ across 
  1. prenositi = to carry over, 
  2. preneti dete = to bear a child longer than it is due, 
  3. preneti dete preko bare = to carry a child over a puddle
  • iz- = out of /thoroughly 
  1. izneti torbu = to carry out a bag, 
  2. iznositi odeću = to wear some clothes for years, 
  3. iznošena odeća = worn out clothes
  • u- = into 
  1. uneti torbu u kuću = to bring a bag into a house
  • s- = downward movement /  it also adds perfective aspect (sth. is finished) 
  1. snositi posledice = to bear the consequences
  2. snositi troškove školovanja = to bear the cost of tuition fees (for example)
  • pod - = to 
  1. podnositi buku = to bear the noise (Kako možeš da podneseš ovu užasnu buku = How can you bear this awful noise ?)
  2. podneti ostavku = to submit a resignation
  3. podneti poraz = to accept a defeat
  4. podnositi ( vreme / pritisak...) = to withstand (weather conditions / pressure)
  • od- = signifies the movement from/ out of or in the opposite direction
  1. odneti = to take sth.to (we took the clothes to them = odneli smo im odeću)
In the next post I'll list a few idioms with the verb "nositi". Watch this space!
If you like this type of blog posts, make sure you don't miss the previous ones covering the verbs:
For those of you who are still coping with the basics, here's a simple video with which you can drill present and past simple, saying sentences such as:
  • On nosi ... / ona nosi ... / ono nosi ...
or in the past
  • On je nosio ... / ona je nosila / ono je nosilo ... or
  • Nosio je... / nosila je ... / nosilo je ... (which is more common and neutral word order)
Here comes the video :

Advanced Serbian - Srpski kao drugi jezik

Gde je ključ? Где је кључ? - Učimo srpski sa Marinom
Gde je ključ? ...
Where is the Key?-...
By Marina Petrović
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